Persuasive essay format The key elements of the persuasive essay format are: A deep preliminary research Evidence supported by reliable sources Additional necessary facts to convince the reader Clear reasoning Plausible arguments and facts Any persuasive essay outline always deals with the proper establishment of the facts in the work. This is the reason it is crucial to know the material very well before writing a persuasive essay in order to choose the most appealing ones. It basically consists of two components:
Cognitive Flexibility Evolutionists insist that genes constrain and direct human behavior. Cultural constructivists counter that culture, embodied in the arts, shapes human experience.
Both these claims are true, but some evolutionists and some cultural constructivists have mistakenly regarded them as mutually exclusive D. Some evolutionists have either ignored the arts or tried to explain them away as epiphenomenal to the basic processes of life.
In the past few years, evolutionists in both the sciences and the humanities have broken through this impasse, arguing that the imagination is a functional part of the adapted mind.
Revising that model makes it possible for us now fully to integrate the evolutionary human sciences and literary study. Cognitive modules—the neural machinery dedicated to sight, for example—are characterized by automaticity and efficiency.
The idea of massive modularity thus carried within itself a general sense of humans as adaptation-executing automata. The idea of massive modularity over-generalizes from the most hard-wired components of the brain.
It is a massive oversimplification of human cognitive architecture, and it is already fading into the archives of intellectual history Geary; Sterelny.
As he sees it, natural selection shaped human motives to maximize inclusive fitness within a hunter-gatherer ecology.
Sociality and language were part of the human adaptive repertory. Imaginative culture was not. To illustrate the by-product idea, Pinker draws parallels between art and pornography, psychoactive drugs, and rich foods like writing a three paragraph descriptive essay rubric.
He acknowledges that fictional narratives might have informational content of some utility in providing game-plans for practical problems that could arise. All the other features of the arts, he suggests, reflect only the human capacity to exploit evolved mechanisms for producing pleasure.
This sort of pleasure, detached from all practical value with respect to survival and reproduction, would be equivalent to the pleasure derived from masturbation. The distinguished sociobiologist Edward O. Wilson offers a very different vision of human cognitive evolution.
The Unity of KnowledgeWilson poses the same question posed by Pinker: If the arts are steered by inborn rules of mental development, they are end products not just of conventional history but also of genetic evolution.
Were the genetic guides mere byproducts—epiphenomena—of that evolution, or were they adaptations that directly improved survival and reproduction? And if adaptations, what exactly were the advantages conferred? The adaptive value of high intelligence is that it provides the means for behavioral flexibility—for generating plans based on mental representations of complex relationships, engaging in collective enterprises requiring shared mental representations, and thus producing novel solutions to adaptive problems.
Behavioral flexibility has made of the human species the most successful alpha predator of all time, but achieving dominance in this way has come with a cost.
To the modern human mind, alone among all minds in the animal kingdom, the world does not present itself as a series of rigidly defined stimuli releasing a narrow repertory of stereotyped behaviors. It presents itself as a vast and potentially perplexing array of percepts, inferences, causal relations, contingent possibilities, analogies, contrasts, and hierarchical conceptual structures.
The human mind is free to organize the elements of cognition in an infinitely diverse array of combinatorial possibilities. And most of those potential forms of organization, like most major mutations, would be fatal. Freedom is the key to human success, and it is also an invitation to disaster.
If instincts are defined as stereotyped programs of behavior released automatically by environmental stimuli, we can say that in humans the arts partially take the place of instinct.
Along with religion, ideology, and other emotionally charged belief systems, the arts form an imaginative interface between complex mental structures, genetically transmitted behavioral dispositions, and behavior. The early EP conception of the mind supposes a sequence in which automatic cognitive processes evolved to solve adaptive problems specific to Pleistocene ecology, with the arts tacked on as side effects.
The alternative vision formulated by Wilson supposes that human cognitive capacities evolved specifically for the purposes of generating adaptive flexibility.
In that alternative evolutionary scenario, dispositions to produce and consume works of imagination co-evolved in functional interdependence with high intelligence.
The affective neuroscientists Jules and Jaak Panksepp vividly evoke this vision of an integrated, systemic evolution of human cognitive powers: What those vast cerebral expansions that emerged during the Pleistocene probably provided was a vast symbolic capacity that enabled foresight, hindsight, and the brain-power to peer into other minds and to entertain alternate courses of action, thereby allowing humans to create the cultures that dominate our modern world.
What makes humans unique, perhaps more than anything else, is that we are a linguistically adept story-telling species.
That is why so many different forms of mythology have captivated our cultural imaginations since the dawn of recorded history.
Conceiving culture in this broader sense, evolutionary anthropologists often cite lactose tolerance as an instance of gene-culture co-evolution Cochran and Harpending; Richerson and Boyd; Wade. Through natural selection, herding peoples have evolved enzymes that enable adults to digest milk.
The cultural practice of keeping cattle serves as a selective force that alters the gene pool in a given population, and in turn the altered gene pool encourages the expansion of a pastoral economy.
Language offers another clear instance of this kind of selective pressure. At some point in the ancestral past, humans had no power of speech. That advantage would have increased the representation of those genes in the population at large, and the increase in those genes would have enhanced the linguistic character of the cultural environment, intensifying the selective advantage conferred by genes promoting the use of language.Browse writing a paragraph resources on Teachers Pay Teachers, a marketplace trusted by millions of teachers for original educational resources.
How to Write an Abstract. In this Article: Article Summary Getting Your Abstract Started Writing Your Abstract Formatting Your Abstract Community Q&A If you need to write an abstract for an academic or scientific paper, don't panic!
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If you prefer more offline work, we have the reading and vocabulary from this course in book form. Daily Progress Chart Materials: Basic Supplies List Spiral notebook or lined paper in a separate section of a binder for foreign language, to write down. STUDENT RUBRIC for Descriptive Writing Is the purpose of my descriptive writing stated in my topic sentence?
Does my paragraph have a topic that is supported by every sentence in the paragraph? 5.
Does the organization of my sentences reflect my purpose and audience? The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
Joseph Carroll is my colleague and friend; we have corresponded and read each others’ pre-published work for more than a decade. I reviewed his first book in a substantial essay in Philosophy and Literature and wrote a response to his target article in the journal Style.