The production of fuel gas out

Countries around the world are racing to phase out gasoline and diesel cars. It has plenty of company: IndiaFranceBritain and Norway want to ditch gas and diesel cars in favor of cleaner vehicles. At least eight other countries have set sales targets for electric cars.

The production of fuel gas out

Shale gas Shale gas is natural gas produced from shale. Because shale has matrix permeability too low to allow gas to flow in economical quantities, shale gas wells depend on fractures to allow the gas to flow. Early shale gas wells depended on natural fractures through which gas flowed; almost all shale gas wells today require fractures artificially created by hydraulic fracturing.

Sinceshale gas has become a major source of natural gas in the United States and Canada. History of manufactured gas Town gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made by the destructive distillation of coal. It contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogencarbon monoxidemethaneand other volatile hydrocarbonstogether with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogenand is used in a similar way to natural gas.

This is a historical technology and is not usually economically competitive with other sources of fuel gas today.

Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or crude oil. It was originally discarded as a byproduct of kerosene production, but its ability to vaporize at low temperatures made it a useful fuel for many machines. Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel. It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat , introduced in in Brazil by Fiat. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas. The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes .

Most town "gashouses" located in the eastern US in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were simple by-product coke ovens that heated bituminous coal in air-tight chambers. The gas driven off from the coal was collected and distributed through networks of pipes to residences and other buildings where it was used for cooking and lighting.

Raw Materials

Gas heating did not come into widespread use until the last half of the 20th century. The coal tar or asphalt that collected in the bottoms of the gashouse ovens was often used for roofing and other waterproofing purposes, and when mixed with sand and gravel was used for paving streets.

The production of fuel gas out

Biogas Methanogenic archaea are responsible for all biological sources of methane. Some live in symbiotic relationships with other life forms, including termitesruminantsand cultivated crops. Other sources of methanethe principal component of natural gas, include landfill gasbiogas, and methane hydrate.

When methane-rich gases are produced by the anaerobic decay of non-fossil organic matter biomassthese are referred to as biogas or natural biogas. Sources of biogas include swampsmarshesand landfillsas well as agricultural waste materials such as sewage sludge and manure by way of anaerobic digesters[28] in addition to enteric fermentationparticularly in cattle.

Background

Landfill gas is created by decomposition of waste in landfill sites. Excluding water vaporabout half of landfill gas is methane and most of the rest is carbon dioxidewith small amounts of nitrogenoxygenand hydrogenand variable trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes.

If the gas is not removed, the pressure may get so high that it works its way to the surface, causing damage to the landfill structure, unpleasant odor, vegetation die-off, and an explosion hazard. The gas can be vented to the atmosphere, flared or burned to produce electricity or heat.

Biogas can also be produced by separating organic materials from waste that otherwise goes to landfills. This method is more efficient than just capturing the landfill gas it produces. Anaerobic lagoons produce biogas from manure, while biogas reactors can be used for manure or plant parts.

Like landfill gas, biogas is mostly methane and carbon dioxide, with small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.

However, with the exception of pesticides, there are usually lower levels of contaminants. Consequently, it may be more economical to burn the gas on site or within a short distance of the landfill using a dedicated pipeline. Water vapor is often removed, even if the gas is burned on site.

If low temperatures condense water out of the gas, siloxanes can be lowered as well because they tend to condense out with the water vapor.

Other non-methane components may also be removed to meet emission standardsto prevent fouling of the equipment or for environmental considerations.

Co-firing landfill gas with natural gas improves combustion, which lowers emissions. Biogas, and especially landfill gas, are already used in some areas, but their use could be greatly expanded. Experimental systems were being proposed[ when? Gas generated in sewage treatment plants is commonly used to generate electricity.Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.

It is most often used as a motor fuel, mainly as a biofuel additive for gasoline. The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat , introduced in in Brazil by Fiat. Sep 11,  · Countries around the world are racing to phase out gasoline and diesel cars.

China, the world's largest car market, is working on a plan to ban the production . Gasoline is a volatile, flammable liquid obtained from the refinement of petroleum, or crude oil. It was originally discarded as a byproduct of kerosene production, but its ability to vaporize at low temperatures made it a useful fuel for many machines.

Sep 16,  · The European Union’s biggest natural gas producer is running out of reserves. The Netherlands, also the region’s largest trading hub for the fuel, has used up .

The anaerobic fermentation and biogas production from biodegradable organic substrates such as expired wine, beer, bread, meat and dairy products, food oils and fats, were tested in the laboratory anaerobic models. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, most, but not all, must be processed to remove impurities, including water, to meet the specifications of marketable natural gas.

The by-products of this processing include: ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide (which may be converted into pure sulfur), carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sometimes .

Ethanol fuel - Wikipedia