These formal and informal efforts are often based on ethnocentrism and were exemplified by the social Darwinist movement of the late nineteenth century. Cultural imperialism is responsible for the spread of some positive values, including democracy and equal rights, but it also brought about the demise of many indigenous cultures and languages and provided a justification for colonialism.
Diaz American History Class It was largely during the Late Modern period that the United States, newly independent from Britain as ofestablished its pervasive influence on the world. The English colonization of North America had begun as early as Jamestown, Virginia was founded inand the Pilgrim Fathers settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts in The first settlers were, then, contemporaries of ShakespeareBacon and Donneand would have spoken a similar dialect.
In fact, the colony would probably have gone the way of the earlier ill-fated Roanoke Island settlement attempt of were it not for the help of an American native called Squanto, who had learned English from English sailors. Parts of the New World had already been long colonized by the French, Spanish and Dutch, but English settlers like the Pilgrim Fathers and those who soon followed them went there to stay, not just to search for riches or trading opportunities.
They wanted to establish themselves permanently, to work the land, and to preserve their culture, religion and language, and this was a crucial factor in the survival and development of English in North America. Perhaps the best-known example is the American use of gotten which has long since faded from use in Britain even though forgotten has survived.
But the American use of words like fall for the British autumn, trash for rubbish, hog for pig, sick for ill, guess for think, and loan for lend are all examples of this kind of anachronistic British word usage.
America kept several words such as burly, greenhorn, talented and scant that had been largely dropped in Britain although some have since been recoveredand words like lumber and lot soon acquired their specific American meanings.
The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many Native American words into the English language. Most of the early settlers were austere Puritans and they were quite conservative in their adoption of native words, which were largely restricted to terms for native animals and foods e.
In many cases, the original indigenous words were very difficult to render in English, and have often been mangled almost beyond recognition e.
Some words needed to describe the Native American lifestyle were also accepted e. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers e.
Immigration into America was not limited to English speakers, though. In the second half of the 19th Century, in particular, over 30 million poured into the country from all parts of the world.
At the peak of immigration, from toAmerica absorbed a million Italians, a million Austro-Hungarians, half a million Russians and tens of thousands each from many other countries.
Many nationalities established their own centres: SOUND CLIP Click here for transcript Often foreigners were despised or laughed at, and the newcomers found it in their best interests to integrate well and to observe as much uniformity of speech and language as possible.
This, as well as the improvements in transportation and communication, led to fewer, and less distinct, dialects than in the much smaller area of Britain, although there are some noticeable and apparently quite arbitrary regional differences, even within some states.
Today, Standard American English, also known as General American, is based on a generalized Midwestern accent, and is familiar to us from American films, radio and newscasters. Long before the Declaration of Independence, British visitors to America often remarked that the average American spoke much better English than the average Englishman.
The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America.JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.
The Catholic Monarchs had developed a strategy of marriages for their children in order to isolate their long-time enemy: France.
The Spanish princesses married the heirs of Portugal, England and the House of initiativeblog.coming the same strategy, the Catholic Monarchs decided to support the Aragonese house of Naples against Charles VIII of France in the Italian Wars beginning in Cultural imperialism is the effort by powerful states to force their culture and societal systems upon subjugated, or less powerful, people.
These formal and informal efforts are often based on ethnocentrism and were exemplified by the social Darwinist movement of the late nineteenth century. British colonialism had begun as early as the 16th Century, but gathered speed and momentum between the 18th and 20th Century.
At the end of the 16th Century, mother-tongue English speakers numbered just million, almost all of them in the British Isles; over the next years, this increased almost fold, 80% of them living outside of Britain.
Spanish Colonization summary. Big picture analysis & overview of Spanish Colonization royal courts of appeals, the Spanish Monarchy was able to exercise control over Spanish settlers, American-born descendants of Spaniards, and they continued to rule the many new nations of Spanish America for generations.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the war of Mexico's west, and the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations.