The infallibility of the bible astronomical errors

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The infallibility of the bible astronomical errors

Born at Pisa15 February, ; died 8 January, His father, Vincenzo Galilei, belonged to a noble family of straitened fortune, and had gained some distinction as a musician and mathematician. The infallibility of the bible astronomical errors boy at an early age manifested his aptitude for mathematical and mechanical pursuits, but his parentswishing to turn him aside from studies which promised no substantial return, destined him for the medical profession.

But all was in vain, and at an early age the youth had to be left to follow the bent of his native genius, which speedily placed him in the very first rank of natural philosophers. It is the great merit of Galileo that, happily combining experiment with calculation, he opposed the prevailing system according to which, instead of going directly to nature for investigation of her laws and processes, it was held that these were best learned by authority, especially by that of Aristotlewho was supposed to have spoken the last word upon all such matters, and upon whom many erroneous conclusions had been fathered in the course of time.

Against such a superstition Galileo resolutely and vehemently set himself, with the result that he not only soon discredited many beliefs which had hitherto been accepted as indisputable, but aroused a storm of opposition and indignation amongst those whose opinions he discredited; the more so, as he was a fierce controversialist, who, not content with refuting adversaries, was bent upon confounding them.

Moreover, he wielded an exceedingly able pen, and unsparingly ridiculed and exasperated his opponents. Undoubtedly he thus did much to bring upon himself the troubles for which he is now chiefly remembered. As Sir David Brewster Martyrs of Science says, "The boldness, may we not say the recklessness, with which Galileo insisted on making proselytes of his enemies, served but to alienate them from the truth.

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Before he was twenty, observation of the oscillations of a swinging lamp in the cathedral of Pisa led him to the discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum, which theory he utilized fifty years later in the construction of an astronomical clock.

Ina treatise on the centre of gravity in solids obtained for him the title of the Archimedes of his timeand secured him a lecture-ship in the University of Pisa. During the years immediately following, taking advantage of the celebrated leaning tower, he laid the foundation experimentally of the theory of falling bodies and demonstrated the falsity of the peripatetic maxim, hitherto accepted without question, that their rate of descent is proportional to their weight.

Galileo, in consequence of this and other troubles, found it prudent to quit Pisa and betake himself to Florencethe original home of his family. By the influence of friends with the Venetian Senate he was nominated in to the chair of mathematics in the University of Paduawhich he occupied for eighteen years, with ever-increasing renown.

He afterwards betook himself to Florencebeing appointed philosopher and mathematician extraordinary to the Grand Duke of Tuscany. During the whole of this period, and to the close of his life, his investigation of Nature, in all her fields, was unwearied. Following up his experiments at Pisa with others upon inclined planes, Galileo established the laws of falling bodies as they are still formulated.

He likewise demonstrated the laws of projectiles, and largely anticipated the laws of motion as finally established by Newton. He studied the properties of the cycloid and attempted the problem of its quadrature; while in the "infinitesimals", which he was one of the first to introduce into geometrical demonstrations, was contained the germ of the calculus.

In statics, he gave the first direct and entirely satisfactory demonstration of the laws of equilibrium and the principle of virtual velocities. In hydrostatics, he set forth the true principle of flotation.

He invented a thermometer termometro lentothough a defective one, but he did not, as is sometimes claimed for him, invent the microscope. Though, as has been said, it is by his astronomical discoveries that he is most widely rememberedit is not these that constitute his most substantial title to fame.

In this connection, his greatest achievement was undoubtedly his virtual invention of the telescope. Hearing early in that a Dutch optician, named Lippershey, had produced an instrument by which the apparent size of remote objects was magnified, Galileo at once realized the principle by which such a result could alone be attained, and, after a single night devoted to consideration of the laws of refraction, he succeeded in constructing a telescope which magnified three times, its magnifying power being soon increased to thirty-two.

This instrument being provided and turned towards the heavens, the discoveries, which have made Galileo famous, were bound at once to follow, though undoubtedly he was quick to grasp their full significance.

The moon was shown not to be, as the old astronomy taught, a smooth and perfect sphere, of different nature to the earth, but to possess hills and valleys and other features resembling those of our own globe.

The planet Jupiter was found to have satellites, thus displaying a solar system in miniature, and supporting the doctrine of Copernicus. But with his telescope Galileo found that Venus did actually exhibit the desired phases, and the objection was thus turned into an argument for Copernicanism.

Finally, the spots on the sun, which Galileo soon perceived, served to prove the rotation of that luminary, and that it was not incorruptible as had been assumed.

Prior to these discoveries, Galileo had already abandoned the old Ptolemaic astronomy for the Copernican. But, as he confessed in a letter to Kepler inhe had refrained from making himself its advocate, lest like Copernicus himself he should be overwhelmed with ridicule.

His telescopic discoveries, the significance of which he immediately perceived, induced him at once to lay aside all reserve and come forward as the avowed and strenuous champion of Copernicanismand, appealing as these discoveries did to the evidence of sensible phenomena, they not only did more than anything else to recommend the new system to general acceptance, but invested Galileo himself with the credit of being the greatest astronomer of his age, if not the greatest who ever lived.

They were also the cause of his lamentable controversy with ecclesiastical authoritywhich raises questions of graver import than any others connected with his name. It is necessarytherefore, to understand clearly his exact position in this regard. The direct services which Galileo rendered to astronomy are virtually summed up in his telescopic discoveries, which, brilliant and important as they were, contributed little or nothing to the theoretical perfection of the scienceand were sure to be made by any careful observer provided with a telescope.

Again, he wholly neglected discoveries far more fundamental than his own, made by his great contemporary Kepler, the value of which he either did not perceive or entirely ignored. Since the first and second of his famous laws were already published by Kepler in and the third, ten years later, it is truly inconceivable, as Delambre says, that Galileo should not once have made any mention of these discoveries, far more difficult than his own, which finally led Newton to determine the general principle which forms the very soul of the celestial mechanism thus established.

Milton also, who visited Galileo in his old ageappears to have suspended his judgment, for there are passages in his great poem which seem to favour both systems.The early Christians met on the first day of the week for the breaking of bread and instruction in the Scriptures (Acts ; cf.

Justin Martyr 1 Apol. 67).This breaking of bread was in obedience to the instruction of the Lord Jesus, who told his disciples to do so in remembrance of him.

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How to use this page: Begin with the Bible verses in the left column; The centre column lists common questions related to that verse and links to articles with answers.

The infallibility of the bible astronomical errors

Protestant dogma insists that Sola Scriptura is an article of faith. 1 By its own criteria, articles of faith must be established by divine revelation. In the words of Zacharius Ursinus (d. ), author of the Heidelberg Catechism, “The doctrine of the church has God for its author whilst.

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In later medieval thought the earth was a disk - flat and round - so it was theoretically possible to find the edge of the world and break through to the first heaven.

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