September In high school I decided I was going to study philosophy in college. I had several motives, some more honorable than others. One of the less honorable was to shock people.
Pre-Socratic philosophy Ioniasource of early Greek philosophy, in western Asia Minor In the pre-Socratic periodancient philosophers first articulated questions about the "arche" the cause or first principle of the universe.
Western philosophy is generally said to begin in the Greek cities of western Asia Minor Ionia with Thales of Miletuswho was active c. Pythagoreans hold that "all is number," giving formal accounts in contrast to the previous material of the Ionians. They also believe in metempsychosisthe transmigration of souls, or reincarnation.
Socrates studied under several Sophists but transformed Greek philosophy into a branch of philosophy that is still pursued today. It is said that following a visit to the Oracle of Delphi he spent much of his life questioning anyone in Athens who would engage him, in order to disprove the oracular prophecy that there would be no man wiser than Socrates.
Socrates used a critical approach called the " elenchus " or Socratic method to examine people's views. He aimed to study human things: Although Socrates wrote nothing himself, some of his many disciples wrote down his conversations.
He was tried for corrupting the youth and impiety by the Greek democracy.
He was found guilty and sentenced to death. Although his friends offered to help him escape from prison, he chose to remain in Athens and abide by his principles. His execution consisted of drinking the poison hemlock and he died in BC.
Plato[ edit ] Plato was a student of Socrates. Plato founded the Academy of Athens and wrote a number of dialogueswhich applied the Socratic method of inquiry to examine philosophical problems.
Some central ideas of Plato's dialogues are the immortality of the soul, the benefits of being just, that evil is ignorance, and the Theory of Forms.
Forms are universal properties that constitute true reality and contrast with the changeable material things he called "becoming". Aristotle was perhaps the first truly systematic philosopher and scientist. He wrote about physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, politics and logic.
Aristotelian logic was the first type of logic to attempt to categorize every valid syllogism. Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great. He in turn conquered much of the ancient world at a rapid pace.
Hellenization and Aristotelian philosophy exercised considerable influence on almost all subsequent Western and Middle Eastern philosophersincluding HellenisticRomanByzantineWestern medievalJewishand Islamic thinkers. Christian philosophy and Medieval philosophy Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Western Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Agesroughly extending from the Christianization of the Roman Empire until the Renaissance.
Early medieval philosophy was influenced by the likes of StoicismNeoplatonismbut, above all, the philosophy of Plato himself. Some problems discussed throughout this period are the relation of faith to reasonthe existence and unity of Godthe object of theology and metaphysicsthe problems of knowledge, of universals, and of individuation.
The prominent figure of this period was Augustine of Hippo one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity who adopted Plato's thought and Christianized it in the 4th century and whose influence dominated medieval philosophy perhaps up to end of the era but was checked with the arrival of Aristotle's texts.
Augustinianism was the preferred starting point for most philosophers including Anselm of Canterburythe father of scholasticism up until the 13th century. The modern university system has roots in the European medieval universitywhich was created in Italy and evolved from Catholic Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages.
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinasan academic philosopher and the father of Thomismwas immensely influential in Catholic Europe; he placed a great emphasis on reason and argumentation, and was one of the first to use the new translation of Aristotle's metaphysical and epistemological writing.Friedrich Nietzsche On Death Of God Philosophy Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: From his rejection of Judeo-Christian morality and his commentary on the “Death of God”, Nietzsche had become one of the most prominent philosophers in Europe.
his writings were corrupted by the misinterpretation of Zarathustra and the people. The Christian philosophy on death has long been that there is life after death.
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Order now. Search. Related Essays. Death and Life – Tuesdays with Morrie ; Philosophy of Judeo Christian Writings ; Near death experience. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Emmanuel Levinas: Basic Philosophical Writings Basic Philosophical Writings (Studies in Continental Thought) by Adriaan T.
Peperzak. Format: Paperback The revealed God of our Judeo-Christian spirituality maintains all the infinity of his absence, which is in the personal ‘order. Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western initiativeblog.comically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with Greek philosophy of the pre-Socratics such as Thales (c.
– c. BC) and Pythagoras (c. BC – c. BC), and eventually covering a large area of the globe. The word philosophy itself originated from the Ancient. Friedrich Nietzsche (—) Nietzsche was a German philosopher, essayist, and cultural critic.
His writings on truth, morality, language, aesthetics, cultural theory, history, nihilism, power, consciousness, and the meaning of existence have exerted an enormous influence on Western philosophy and intellectual history.
Nietzsche spoke of "the death . Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient (Greco-Roman), Medieval philosophy (Christian European), period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought.