Bhatnagar M, et al. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology See abstract Calderon J, et al.
But what might central bank cryptocurrencies CBCCs look like and would they be useful? This feature provides a taxonomy of money that identifies two types of CBCC - retail and wholesale - and differentiates them from other forms of central bank money such as cash and reserves.
It discusses the different characteristics of CBCCs and compares them with existing payment options. E41, E42, E51, E In less than a decade, bitcoin has gone from being an obscure curiosity to a household name.
In the meantime, hundreds of other cryptocurrencies - equalling bitcoin in market value - have emerged Graph 1left-hand panel. While it seems unlikely that bitcoin or its sisters will displace sovereign currencies, they have demonstrated the viability of the underlying blockchain or distributed ledger technology DLT.
Venture capitalists and financial institutions are investing heavily in DLT projects that seek to provide new financial services as well as deliver old ones more efficiently.
Bloggers, central bankers and academics are predicting transformative or disruptive implications for payments, banks and the financial system at large. But making sense of all this is difficult. There is confusion over what these new currencies are, and discussions often occur without a common understanding of what is actually being proposed.
This feature seeks to provide some clarity by answering a deceptively simple question: To that end, we present a taxonomy of money that is based on four key properties: The taxonomy defines a CBCC as an electronic form of central bank money that can be exchanged in a decentralised manner known as peer-to-peer, meaning that transactions occur directly between the payer and the payee without the need for a central intermediary.
Moreover, the taxonomy distinguishes between two possible forms of CBCC: For the consumer-facing kind, we argue that the peer-to-peer element of the new technology has the potential to provide anonymity features that are similar to those of cash but in digital form. If anonymity is not seen as important, then most of the alleged benefits of retail CBCCs can be achieved by giving the public access to accounts at the central bank, something that has been technically feasible for a long time but which central banks have mostly stayed away from.
On the wholesale side, the assessment of CBCCs is quite different. Wholesale payments today do not offer cash-like anonymity. In particular, transactions that occur in wholesale systems are visible to the central operator.
Hence, the case for wholesale CBCCs depends on their ability to improve efficiency and reduce settlement costs. Here, the answer depends on a number of technical issues that still need to be resolved.
Some central banks have experimented with wholesale CBCCs, but none has announced yet that it is ready to adopt this technology.
The first section presents the taxonomy underlying our definition. The following two sections discuss the features of the two basic CBCC types, retail and wholesale, drawing on historical examples and projects that are currently under way. A concluding section reflects on some of the issues that central banks need to consider in this area going forward.Efficiency Purpose of the Literature Review: Through analysis of existing case studies, this work examines attempts to measure productivity outcomes through the application of a methodology which is credible according to the investigator.
The primary purpose is to ascertain whether there are. review of the literature Although it has been more common to investigate employee attitude data at the individual employee level, researchers have begun to explore similar relationships at the.
essentially a literature review, intends to explain the behaviour of stock prices with respect to information.
It considers efficiency in relation to block transactions, new issues, stock. Banks also play an important role in diminishing informational asymmetries and risks in the financial system. Hence, the study of the banking industry and its impact on the economy is of the utmost importance.
The effects of concentration and competition on bank performance are pertinent since they have important policy implications. limitations, and explaining the approach used in this review to look at a broader set of outcomes than is normally the case in this literature.
Sections represent the substantive part of the paper, summarizing the evidence on impacts for minimum wages, employment protection rules, unions and collective bargaining, and mandated benefits. If there is an actual difference between the "literature survey" and the "literature review," it's that the latter can serve as a paper in and of itself, and is much more extensive than a literature survey, which is typically a major part of the introduction of a research paper.