History[ edit ] The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon. A comparison of the images shows that where vegetation is dense, temperatures are cooler.
There are vociferous political organizations pushing this viewpoint, and a substantial portion of the public seems to be largely convinced that our primary source of electricity in the next century will be solar. As a frequent participant in meetings on energy technology, I have come to know several solar energy experts, but I have yet to meet one who shares the above opinion.
Their professional lives are devoted to development of solar electricity, and most of them are very enthusiastic about its future. They foresee its future, at least for the near term, as a supplement to other technologies, with advantages in certain situations, rather than as the principal power source for an industrialized society.
My purpose here is to explain why that is so. It should be understood from the outset that I am not in any sense an expert on solar electricity.
I have never done research in that field or even in the basic physics of semiconductors on which much of it is based. My knowledge is derived from relatively shallow reading, brief conversations with scientists working in the field, and preparing lectures for classes that I teach.
The materials that I read, mostly obtained from the U. Department of Energy and Solar Energy Research Institute, and the people from those organizations that I talk to, are always highly enthusiastic. They describe new records in efficiency of solar cells, ideas for new materials that have potential for much improved performance, reduced costs, new records in production and sales, new applications being undertaken, and the like.
This is as it should be for a new and rapidly developing technology.
If it were not, the technology would never have a chance. It reminds me of the early days in development of nuclear power, when enthusiasts thought it would be so cheap that it would drive all other energy sources out of the market.
This early enthusiasm is a wonderful thing, but it should not be confused with what can be counted on to happen. Some technologies, like electronics and computers, have fulfilled the expectations of their early enthusiastic promoters, but the much more usual situation is for them to find useful niches but to fall far short of these dreams.
A recent and somewhat relevant example is the use of solar energy for heating and cooling. In the mids, enthusiasts were predicting that solar collectors would soon replace furnaces and hot water heaters in every home.
New businesses were springing up everywhere for manufacturing and marketing solar heating systems and improved models kept coming out. Rampant rumors circulated about radical new improvements in the offing. I took my classes on tours of solar-heated buildings, and brought in experts on solar heating to lecture in our university.
Since the technology of solar heating is relatively simple, it matured very rapidly, and by the early s it became reasonably clear that development had gone about as far as it could go. Well-developed marketing organizations made every effort to sell their products, aided by unprecedented subsidies.
I actually had a pen in my hand ready to sign a contract for installation of a solar water heater in my home, but I decided to delay until I did a careful cost calculation.
I found that the cost of heating water in my home was 3 times as high with the solar energy system as with natural gas. I became interested in the subject, did research, and eventually published a paper on it.15 ¶ And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.
Heat: An Amateur's Adventures as Kitchen Slave, Line Cook, Pasta-Maker, and Apprentice to a Dante-Quoting Butcher in Tuscany [Bill Buford] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A highly acclaimed writer and editor, Bill Buford left his job at The New Yorker for a most unlikely destination: the kitchen at Babbo. Heat: An Amateur's Adventures as Kitchen Slave, Line Cook, Pasta-Maker, and Apprentice to a Dante-Quoting Butcher in Tuscany [Bill Buford] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A highly acclaimed writer and editor, Bill Buford left his job at The New Yorker for a most unlikely destination: the kitchen at Babbo. 1/ Diet preparation: Dissolve gelatin in cold water. Heat with stirring on water bath to 80°C. Remove from heat.
Add with stirring - dextrin, casein, minerals, oils, and vitamins as temperature decreases. _____ Central Receiver Systems.
The central receiver concept for solar energy concentration and collection is based on a field of individually sun-tracking mirrors (heliostats) that reflect the incident sunshine to a receiver (boiler) at the top of a centrally located initiativeblog.comlly 80 to 95 percent of the reflected energy is absorbed into the .
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