Five major structures of the brain and their functions

Trachea- functions to conduct air between the larynx and primary bronchi. Bronchi- conducts air into each and out of the each lung's five lobes. Lungs- are sites for gas exchange.

Five major structures of the brain and their functions

Brain Stem The nervous system is your body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system CNS is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system PNS is made of nerves. Together they control every part of your daily life, from breathing and blinking to helping you memorize facts for a test.

Nerves reach from your brain to your face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord Sensory nerves gather information from the environment, send that info to the spinal cord, which then speed the message to the brain.


The brain then makes sense of that message and fires off a response. Motor neurons deliver the instructions from the brain to the rest of your body.

The spinal cord, made of a bundle of nerves running up and down the spine, is similar to a superhighway, speeding messages to and from the brain at every second. The brain is made of three main parts: The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus part of the limbic system.

Major Structures and Functions of the Brain - Discovering the Brain - NCBI Bookshelf

The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem.

The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": Here is a visual representation of the cortex: What do each of these lobes do?

Five major structures of the brain and their functions

Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech Note that the cerebral cortex is highly wrinkled.

Essentially this makes the brain more efficient, because it can increase the surface area of the brain and the amount of neurons within it. We will discuss the relevance of the degree of cortical folding or gyrencephalization later.

Go here for more information about cortical folding A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres.

Brain Structures and Their Functions |

The two hemispheres look mostly symmetrical yet it has been shown that each side functions slightly different than the other. Sometimes the right hemisphere is associated with creativity and the left hemispheres is associated with logic abilities.

The corpus callosum is a bundle of axons which connects these two hemispheres. Nerve cells make up the gray surface of the cerebrum which is a little thicker than your thumb.

Five major structures of the brain and their functions

White nerve fibers underneath carry signals between the nerve cells and other parts of the brain and body. The neocortex occupies the bulk of the cerebrum.

This is a six-layered structure of the cerebral cortex which is only found in mammals. It is thought that the neocortex is a recently evolved structure, and is associated with "higher" information processing by more fully evolved animals such as humans, primates, dolphins, etc.

For more information about the neocortex, click here. The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex.


This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance. The cerebellum is assumed to be much older than the cerebrum, evolutionarily. What do I mean by this?Brain supplement health improvement with diet and food, natural supplements, alternative methods June 7 by Ray Sahelian, M.D..

The human brain is the center of the central nervous system as well as the primary control center . The George Mateljan Foundation is a not-for-profit foundation with no commercial interests or advertising. Our mission is to help you .

Mar 29,  · The five major divisions of the brain are the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the metencephalon, and the myelencephalon. The telencephalon, which is the human brain's largest division, is responsible for mediating the most complex functions of the brain (Pinel, ).

Read chapter 4 How Children Learn: First released in the Spring of , How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the.

Figure 1: Areas of the brain affected by depression. Amygdala: The amygdala is part of the limbic system, a group of structures deep in the brain that's associated with emotions such as anger, pleasure, sorrow, fear, and sexual arousal.

The amygdala is activated when a person recalls emotionally charged memories, such as a frightening situation. The human brain is not only one of the most important organs in the human body; it is also the most the following tour, you will learn about the basic structures that make up the brain as well as how the brain works.

This is not an in-depth look at all of the research on the brain (such a resource would fill stacks of books).

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