Symptom Like some of the other symptoms this can swing either way. Sometimes patients report insomnia, other times a desire to sleep all the time As above, sometimes patients lose their appetite resulting in weight loss, others engage in comfort eating and show noticeable weight gain.
Psychological testing is the branch of psychology in which we use standardized tests, construct them Ensuring reliability validity essay questions order to understand the individual differences.
Psychological testing is a term that refers to the use of psychological tests. It refers to all the possible uses, applications, and underlying concepts of psychological tests. Test is defined as a series of questions on the basis of which information is sought.
A psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of sample of behavior. OR A psychological test is a standardized measure quantitatively or qualitatively one or more than one aspect of trait by means of a sample of verbal or non-verbal behaviors.
In psychology and education, the purpose of a test is two-fold. First, it attempts to compare the same individual on two or more than two aspects of traits. Second two or more than two persons may be compared on the same trait.
Such a measurement may be either quantitative or qualitative. A test must have the trait of objectivity, that is it must be free from the subjective element so that there is complete interpersonal agreement among experts regarding the meaning of items and scoring of the test.
By objectivity of items is meant that the items should be phrased in such a manner that they are interpreted in exactly the same way by all those who are taking the test.
For ensuring objectivity of items, items must have uniformity of order of presentation either ascending or descending. By objectivity of scoring is meant that the scoring method of the test should be a standard one so that complete uniformity can be maintained when the test is scored by different experts at different times.
A test must also be reliable. Once or more than once on the same sample with a reasonable gap. Consistency in results obtained in a single administration is the index of internal consistency of the test and consistency in results obtained upon testing and retesting is the index of temporal consistency.
Reliability thus, includes both internal consistency as well as temporal consistency. A test to be called sound must be reliable because reliability indicates the extent to which the scores obtained in the test are free from such internal defects of standardization, which are likely to produce errors of measurement.
Validity is another prerequisite for a test to be sound. Validity indicates the extent to which the test measure what it intends to measure, when compared with some outside independent criteria. In other words it is the correlation of the test with some outside criteria.
The criteria should be independent one and should be regarded as the best index of trait or ability being measured by the test.
Generally, validity of a test is dependent upon the reliability because a test which yields inconsistent results poor reliability is ordinarily not expected to correlate with some outside independent criteria.
A test must also be guided by certain norms. Depending upon the purpose and use, a test constructor prepares any of these above norms of his test. Norms help in interpretation of the scores. In the absence of norms no meaning can be added to the score obtained on the test.
A test must also be practicable from the point of view of the time taken in its completion, length, scoring etc. Before the real work of test construction, the test constructor take some broad decisions about the major objectives of the test in general terms and population for whom the test is intended and also indicates the possible conditions under which the test can be used and its important uses.
These preliminary decisions have far reaching consequences. For example a test constructor may decide to construct an intelligence test meant for students of tenth grade broadly aiming at diagnosing the manipulative and organizational ability of the pupils.
Having decided the above preliminary things, the test constructor go ahead with the following steps: Planning Writing items for the test. Preliminary administration of the test.
Reliability of the final test.Free Quantitative papers, essays, and research papers. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods - In this paper, I will define quantitative and qualitative research methods and provide examples in the context of social issues which will hopefully provide insight into how this methods are properly applied.
Obviously it is hard assignment to pick solid certification questions/answers assets concerning review, reputation and validity since individuals collect sham because of picking incorrectly benefit.
Predictive validity: If an indicator can be shown to reliability predict a future outcome, it can be said to have predictive validity. This type of validity is restricted to situations where the indicator and the outcome are distinct from each other, while still measuring the same concept.
This paper provides quantitative data that, in many cases, open source software / free software is equal to or superior to their proprietary competition.
The paper examines market share, reliability, performance, scalability, scaleability, security, and total cost of ownership; it also comments on non-quantitative issues and unnecessary fears. To assess the validity and reliability of a survey or other measure, researchers need to consider a number of things.
Ensuring the validity of measurement At the outset, researchers need to consider the face validity of a questionnaire. News. Lexis Advance has been named the “Best Legal Solution” by the SIIA CODiE Awards.
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