History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society.
Happiness colloquially refers to emotions experienced, potentially ranging from contentment to joy.
Happiness is therefore primarily a subjective and qualitative consideration. Despite this, research over the last decade has begun to define well-being, which will be addressed in more detail in this paper. One key challenge is the quantification of health and well-being, and thus the assessment of the overall health performance of design.
At one end of the spectrum, physical ill health is typically identifiable and measureable in terms of the symptoms and causes. For example, air quality e.
Although subjective assessment of air quality, particularly related to odour, can offer useful insights, often health-threatening indicators can only be measured. Specific criteria and design strategies to tackle chronic physiological health problems can be defined, and there is a wealth of expertise to support this9.
At the other end of the health and well-being spectrum is mental well-being or happiness. As we move from the deterministic-medical to the subjectivepsychological end, the common perception is that the emphasis changes from quantitative to qualitative.
However, it is now evident that even within the sphere of the subjective parameters there are emerging methodologies and indicators that can be defined. For example, in the field of thermal comfort there has seen a development from narrow and precise physiological comfort theory, based on the seminal work of Fanger10, to a more holistic understanding that has led to the adoption of adaptive comfort theory Similarly, health research has extended from the treatment of symptoms to incorporate a wider and more holistic appreciation of well-being of the population.
It is the topic of well-being that is the primary focus of this essay. The notion of well-being consists of two key elements: Feelings of happiness, curiosity and engagement are characteristic of someone with a positive sense of themselves.
Having positive relationships, control over your own life and a sense of purpose are all attributes of functioning well. International evidence has recently been gathered to measure well-being, demonstrating that this field has now emerged as a rigorous discipline Recent research has demonstrated connections of key physical design characteristics with the Five Ways to Well-Being Connect, Keep Active, Take Notice, Keep Learning and Givewhich have been associated with positive mental health Based on these findings, the following paragraphs reveal how the provision of local urban and domestic resources can impinge on the five healthy behaviours.
This supports current theory and research, which shows that a sufficient quantity and quality of diverse environmental, social and physical resources can influence human cognition, which, in turn, can increase the healthy behaviours of the wider population.
Recent work has changed this and has established a more holistic awareness of the role of architecture in health. This is supported by an increasing wealth of medical research related to physical health16 and mental health The emphasis has been on ill health as a result of the effects of environmental characteristics such as overcrowding, noise, air quality and light.
These effects are typically described as direct i. It is the built-environment characteristics that support such positive behaviour, which is a key point of discussion here.
The science of well-being is a relatively recent area of enquiry.This questionnaire was developed by the early childhood service providers, pediatricians, psychologists, and health advocates of Southern Kennebec Healthy Start, Augusta, Maine, in . say reducing class size would be the most effective reform to improve student outcomes – far outstripping any other reform, including socio-emotional learning, universal preK, community schools, and college-reading standards.
A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British and Australian English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the initiativeblog.coms are most commonly used within a criminal .
The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings.
In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of. Jun 12, · Feature. Choosing a School for My Daughter in a Segregated City.
How one school became a battleground over which children benefit from a separate and unequal system. Ever loved a book or story, and been unable to find another quite like it? Maybe we at Magic Dragon Multimedia can help to steer you in the right direction.