Discuss the principle underlying the practical

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Discuss the principle underlying the practical

The following small but powerful set of principles can make teaching both more effective and more efficient, by helping us create the conditions that support student learning and minimize the need for revising materials, content, and policies.

While implementing these principles requires a commitment in time and effort, it often saves time and energy later on. Effective teaching involves acquiring relevant knowledge about students and using that knowledge to inform our course design and classroom teaching.

Discuss the principle underlying the practical

When we teach, we do not just teach the content, we teach students the content. A variety of student characteristics can affect learning. Although we cannot adequately measure all of these characteristics, gathering the most relevant information as early as possible in course planning and continuing to do so during the semester can a inform course design e.

Effective teaching involves aligning the three major components of instruction: Taking the time to do this upfront saves time in the end and leads to a better course.

The Principle of Beneficence in Applied Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Teaching is more effective and student learning is enhanced when a we, as instructors, articulate a clear set of learning objectives i. Effective teaching involves articulating explicit expectations regarding learning objectives and policies. There is amazing variation in what is expected of students across American classrooms and even within a given discipline.

For example, what constitutes evidence may differ greatly across courses; what is permissible collaboration in one course could be considered cheating in another.

Thus, being clear about our expectations and communicating them explicitly helps students learn more and perform better.

Articulating our learning objectives i. Similarly, being explicit about course policies e.

Discuss the principle underlying the practical

Altogether, being explicit leads to a more productive learning environment for all students. Coverage is the enemy: Too many topics work against student learning, so it is necessary for us to make decisions — sometimes difficult ones — about what we will and will not include in a course.

This involves a recognizing the parameters of the course e. Effective teaching involves recognizing and overcoming our expert blind spots.

We are not our students! As experts, we tend to access and apply knowledge automatically and unconsciously e. They need instructors to break tasks into component steps, explain connections explicitly, and model processes in detail. Though it is difficult for experts to do this, we need to identify and explicitly communicate to students the knowledge and skills we take for granted, so that students can see expert thinking in action and practice applying it themselves.

Effective teaching involves adopting appropriate teaching roles to support our learning goals. We can take on a variety of roles in our teaching e.

Practical reason: morality and the primacy of pure practical reason

These roles should be chosen in service of the learning objectives and in support of the instructional activities.

For example, if the objective is for students to be able to analyze arguments from a case or written text, the most productive instructor role might be to frame, guide and moderate a discussion.

If the objective is to help students learn to defend their positions or creative choices as they present their work, our role might be to challenge them to explain their decisions and consider alternative perspectives. Such roles may be constant or variable across the semester depending on the learning objectives.

Effective teaching involves progressively refining our courses based on reflection and feedback. We need to continually reflect on our teaching and be ready to make changes when appropriate e. Knowing what and how to change requires us to examine relevant information on our own teaching effectiveness.

Much of this information already exists e. Based on such data, we might modify the learning objectives, content, structure, or format of a course, or otherwise adjust our teaching.

Small, purposeful changes driven by feedback and our priorities are most likely to be manageable and effective.understand how they can translate the theory and philosophy of OBE into practical action in their instructional planning, “Outcome-Based Education means clearly focusing and organizing everything in is the underlying principle of the Key Competencies in Australia (Mayer, ).

In a. Core values is a broad phrase to describe the standards by which we characterize a person, profession, or organization.

Theoretical reason: reason’s cognitive role and limitations

Throughout the course of brainstorming and analyzing my professional experience, I have settled on a set of five values that are most important in public administration. A principle is a concept or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation.

In law, it is a rule that has to be or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed. May 26,  · These first concepts, also called principles of management are the underlying factors for successful management.

Henri Fayol explored this comprehensively and, as a result, he synthesized the 14 principles of management. Henri Fayol ‘s principles of management and research were published in the book ‘General and Ratings: The gap between the first principle of practical reason and the other basic principles, indicated by the fact that they too are self-evident, also has significant consequences for the acts of the will which follow the basic principles of practical reason.

Prime examples are found in the moral-sentiment theory of David Hume, where benevolence is the central “principle” of human nature in his moral psychology, and in utilitarian theories, where the principle of utility is itself a strong and demanding principle of beneficence.

14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol | ToolsHero