Dialogism, Polyphony, Heteroglossia, Open Interpretation A Student's Guide by Martin Irvine Georgetown University Key Terms in Bakhtin's Theory The Utterance or Word In Bakhtin's view, an expression in a living context of exchange--termed a "word" or "utterance"--is the main unit of meaning not abstract sentences out of contextand is formed through a speaker's relation to Otherness other people, others' words and expressions, and the lived cultural world in time and place. A "word" is therefore always already embedded in a history of expressions by others in a chain of ongoing cultural and political moments. Discourse chains or strings of utterances is thus fundamentally dialogic and historically contingent positioned within, and inseparable from, a community, a history, a place. Any utterance is a link in the chain of communication.
Victory attained by violence is tantamount to a defeat, for it is momentary.
|Philosophy and Literature||The Mirror and the Lamp:|
The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong. If India adopted the doctrine of love as an active part of her religion and introduced it in her politicsSwaraj would descend upon India from heaven. But I am painfully aware that that event is far off as yet.
The ideally non-violent state will be an ordered anarchy. That State is the best governed which is governed the least. Religions are different roads converging to the same point. What does it matter that we take different road, so long as we reach the same goal. Wherein is the cause for quarrelling?
An unjust law is itself a species of violence.
Arrest for its breach is more so. Our duty is very simple and plain.
We want to serve the community, and in our own humble way to serve the Empire. We believe in the righteousness of the cause, which it is our privilege to espouse. We have an abiding faith in the mercy of the Almighty God, and we have firm faith in the British Constitution.
That being so, we should fail in our duty if we wrote anything with a view to hurt. Facts we would always place before our readers, whether they are palatable or not, and it is by placing them constantly before the public in their nakedness that the misunderstanding between the two communities in South Africa can be removed.
Indian Opinion 1 October Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension. Of course, under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs from the Location.
About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians I must confess I feel most strongly. I think it is very unfair to the Indian population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my countrymen.
In this instance of the fire-arms, the Asiatic has been most improperly bracketed with the native. The British Indian does not need any such restrictions as are imposed by the Bill on the natives regarding the carrying of fire-arms.
The prominent race can remain so by preventing the native from arming himself. Is there a slightest vestige of justification for so preventing the British Indian?Breit The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, by M. M. Bakhtin, edited by Michael Holquist, translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist; pp.
Austin: University of Texas Press, , $ Soviet political authorities are to be credited for preventing Michael Bakhtin, a leading intellectual of our time, from becoming a major voice in. This book consists of four essays of Bakhtin's "Middle Period", two short and two longer works which have been arranged, according to complexity, with the most accessible essay first and the Reviews: 4.
From Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays (Austin: University of Texas Press, ).
The word is born in a dialogue as a living rejoinder within it; the word is shaped in dialogic interaction with an alien word that is already in the object.
Polyphony (Russian: полифония) is a concept taken up by literary theory, speech act theory and linguistics to refer to the simultaneity of points of view and voices within a particular narrative plane.
The concept was introduced by Mikhail Bakhtin, using a metaphor based on the musical term polyphony.. Bakhtin's primary example of polyphony was Fyodor Dostoevsky's prose.
Get this from a library! The dialogic imagination: four essays. [M M Bakhtin; Michael Holquist] -- These essays reveal Mikhail Bakhtin ()--known in the West largely through his studies of Rabelais and Dostoevsky--as a philosopher of language, a cultural historian, and a major theoretician.
Speech Genres and Other Late Essays presents six short works from Bakhtin's Esthetics of Creative Discourse, published in Moscow in This is the last of Bakhtin's extant manuscripts published in the Soviet Union. All but one of these essays (the one on the Bildungsroman) were written in Bakhtin's later years and thus they bear the stamp of a thinker who has accumulated a huge storehouse.