Also to obtain baseline data towards the establishment of bioequivalence of the tablets dosage forms. The quality and physicochemical equivalence of four different brands of Theophylline Sustained Release tablets were assessed.
Discussion Drinking water is not expected to be sterile therefore microorganisms may be found in potable water. In this study, different batches of bottled water produced by 15 different bottling companies were investigated.
These samples used were the products of large multinational water bottling companies, government and institutional bottling companies as well as the small scale bottling companies which are likely to have been attracted to the packaging of water by a combination of high demand and the possibility of making quick returns on investment [ 4 ].
From the results of this study, the three batches of samples produced by only four companies were of acceptable quality. One other company produced one acceptable batch out of the three batches sampled while the water samples from the other 10 companies were found not to be acceptable on all three sampling occasions.
The acceptability of the products was determined on the bases of the total bacterial load, as well as the presence of coliforms and other indicator organisms. On the basis of total heterotrophic bacterial load, In most cases these are bacteria that are considered to be relatively harmless components of the environment and can be found on the skin, in soil and in very high numbers in food products such as fruits, vegetables, meats, cheeses, yogurt and pasteurized milk [ 3 ].
Tens of thousands to millions of such bacteria are consumed on a regular basis in these foods unnoticed [ 1718 ]. The presence of these organisms in large numbers even when they are non pathogenic is however of significance in immuno-compromised persons in whom they could cause opportunistic infections.
Such persons include young children, the Comparative analysis of different brands, pregnant women, people with diseases such as cancer, diabetes and people on such medications as the corticosteroids which possess immunosuppressive properties [ 19 ]. It has been pointed out that high numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled water might arise when unsterilized and uncapped plastic bottles are transported to the bottling plants in cardboard cartons which expose the interiors of the bottles to airborne contaminants [ 20 ].
It has also been pointed out that the presence of large numbers of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled water is an indication of poor manufacturing practices involved in the processing of such water [ 10 ] and must therefore be deemed to be unacceptable. On the basis of the coliform count, it is required that drinking water must not contain any coliform in mls of water [ 16 ].
The detected coliforms were from one of the three samples produced by the institutional water bottling business ventures and three of the nine small scale producers.
None of the nine samples produced by the three multinational large scale producers were contaminated with coliform bacteria.
Coliforms have similarly been reported to occur in bottled water sampled in Egypt and some other locations in Nigeria [ 1012 ]. The presence of coliforms in bottled water samples is not a confirmation of recent fecal contamination as E.
Since coliforms are among the group of organisms that have been reported to have the capacity to form biofilms on the items of equipment used in the bottling process [ 16 ], they are not only indicators of problems with the quality of water source but also of possible contamination during the process of bottling water and are significant from the point of view of hygiene [ 21 ].
Some possible reasons for the presence of coliforms in bottled water samples include poor hygienic practices of the producers, poor hand hygiene, illiteracy and unhygienic practices of vendors. In a study carried out in Egypt [ 10 ] coliforms were detected in On the basis of the presence of other indicator organisms, bottled water samples from 10 of the producers were found not to be acceptable for drinking.
Apart from coliforms, other indicator organisms including Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species were isolated from water samples obtained from ten of the fifteen producers studied.
As pointed out by Addo et al. Pseudomonads including Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been shown to be persistent contaminants of water plants [ 23 ].
This organism is an opportunistic pathogen, the ingestion of which can cause infections in the immuno-compromised subjects [ 24 ].
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also known for its resistance to many antimicrobial agents making the treatment of infections caused by the organism a difficult task. This is why it has been suggested that test for the presence of Pseudomonas species in drinking water should be used as a means of monitoring the hygienic quality of drinking water [ 16 ].
The two brands, with all batches contaminated by Pseudomonas species were products of two small scale producers. Staphylococci which are the other indicator organisms detected in some of the samples were found in 11 Staphylococcus aureus is an indicator of poor hygienic practices during water bottling [ 16 ] and is more likely to have been introduced into the samples by the personnel involved in water processing.
Its presence in the water samples is suggestive of the fact that the bottled water samples in this study were contaminated not only by the factory surroundings but also by the people who came in contact with any part of the bottling procedure [ 25 ].
The use of bare hands at different stages in the production of the bottled water is a probable source of this bacterial contaminant. This is suggestive of the fact that the bottles were filled manually as is often the case with small scale producers, such as those whose samples were found to be contaminated with S.
The deficiencies observed in these samples suggest that most of the producers of the bottled water samples examined in this study do not follow stipulated guidelines in their production processes. This is however avoidable if there is adequate control or monitoring of the practices of the bottling companies.
The observation from this study is an indication of the lack of required infrastructure within the manufacturing outfits.Project Report on Comparative Analysis of Amul With Other Brands - Free download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free/5(20).
COMPARATIVE STUDY AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF COLD DRINKS AVAILABLE IN MARKET. CHEMISTRY PROJECT. On.
Content of Cold Drinks Available in the Market. comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market. CHEMISTRY PROJECT On Content of Cold Drinks Available in the Market Poison vs.
Nutrition AIM COMPARATIVE STUDY AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF COLD DRINKS AVAILABLE IN MARKET. comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market. chemistry project on content of cold drinks available in the market poison vs.
nutrition aim comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market.
comparative study and qualitative analysis of different brands of cold drinks available in market. Words | 7 Pages CHEMISTRY PROJECT On Content of Cold Drinks Available in the Market Poison vs.
Nutrition AIM COMPARATIVE STUDY AND QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF COLD DRINKS AVAILABLE . COMPARATIVE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF mg ASPIRIN TABLET MARKETED IN MAIDUGURI METROPOLITAN COUNCIL (MMC) Sani Ali.
Audu. a, Abdulmalik Ahmed.a, Alemika initiativeblog.com