Circulatory system Circulatory system in human Circulatory system helps to circulate blood with all the essential nutrient and oxygenated blood reach every corner and parts of the body.
Small intestine The small diameter intestine in humans is approximately 6 meters in length and is divided into 3 anatomical regions, from proximal to distal: The small intestine performs multiple digestive functions that include 1 neutralization of the acidic chyme passed from the stomach duodenum2 enzymatic and biliary digestion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and 3 absorption of nutrients and water.
In addition to its digestive functions, the small intestine provides immune surveillance by means of M. These branched glands secrete an alkaline mucous that neutralizes the gastric chyme. In addition to enzymes released from the mucosa, digestion in the duodenum is assisted by 2 accessory digestive organs: The next segments of the small intestine are the jejunum followed by the ileum.
Chyme passes from the ileum into the large intestine at the ileocecal junction. Histologically, the jejunum and ileum are largely indistinguishable and functionally are primarily absorptive. Lumen topology All regions of the small intestine have 3 features that serve to increase the surface area SA of the lumen for absorption: These features combine to increase the total SA fold.
Histological structure of the small intestine Like all organs within the gastrointestinal tract the wall of the small intestine is formed by 4 superimposed tunics or coats: The mucosa forms villi and intestinal glands.
The villi are hair-like projections consisting of a connective tissue core lamina propria covered by a simple columnar epithelium enterocytes; also called absorptive cells interspersed with goblet cells.
The microvilli covering the enterocytes create an apical striated border in LM. Fibroblasts, capillaries, lymphatics, and immune cells wandering leukocytes and macrophages.
There are 3 things to note in the lamina propria: This smooth muscle is thought to move the villi about stirred surface concept.
The muscularis mucosa is described as being bilayered with a thin, inner circular stratum and a thin outer longitudinal stratum. Its contraction is thought to mix the lumenal contents.
These glands contain zymogen and mucous secreting cells. The alkaline secretion of these glands acts to 1 neutralize the acidic chyme released from the gaster and 2 raise the pH of the chyme for pancreatic enzyme activation.
The muscularis is typical with an inner circular and outer longitudinal stratum of smooth muscle to provide peristalsis. Epithelial cells of the small intestine There are 6 types of epithelial cells found lining the lumen and forming the glands of the small intestine: The enterocytes are the major cell type of the villi and the upper regions of the intestinal glands.
These are primarily absorptive cells and any secretions are related to absorption. They are columnar cells with a basal nucleus. Their apical lumenal surface is covered with microvilli to which are anchored digestive enzymes.
The enterocytes absorb water, sodium, fats, sugars and amino acids. Both active and passive transport are used to move nutrients from the lumen, through the cell and released into the extracellular space.
Goblet cells are unicellular mucous glands with a basal nucleus and apical mucous cup.ANAT D – Basic Histology. Web assignment: To better understand the immunological component of the digestive system, please view the following video (1) nutrients and toxins absorbed from the GI tract, (2) blood cells and their digested products from the spleen and (3) endocrine secretions from the pancreas and the .
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