The myth of Neo-colonialism By Tunde Obadina More than three decades after most African nations became independent, there is no consensus on the legacy of colonialism. For apologists of colonialism the answer is simple. Whatever may have been the shortcomings of colonial rule, the overall effect was positive for Africa.
Two main British armies were captured at Saratoga in and Yorktown inleading to peace with the Treaty of Paris inwith the recognition of the United States as an independent nation bounded by British Canada on the north, Spanish Florida on the south, and the Mississippi River on the west.
Origins Taxation without representation Before the revolution: In addition to the thirteen colonies, sixteen smaller colonies were ruled directly by royal governors.
Inthe colonists still considered themselves loyal subjects of the British Crown, with the same historic rights and obligations as subjects in Britain.
The problem was not that taxes were high but that they were not consulted about the new taxes, as they had no representation in parliament.
The phrase "no taxation without representation" became popular within many American circles. Government officials in London argued that the Americans were represented "virtually"; but most Americans rejected the theory that men in London, who knew nothing about their needs and conditions, could represent them.
Widespread evasion of these laws had long been tolerated. Now, through the use of open-ended search warrants Writs of Assistancestrict enforcement became the practice.
In Massachusetts lawyer James Otis argued that the writs violated the constitutional rights of the colonists. He lost the case, but John Adams later wrote, "American independence was then and there born. Protests led to a powerful new weapon, the systemic boycott of British goods.
In the Stamp Act was the first direct tax ever levied by Parliament on the colonies. All newspapersalmanacs, pamphlets and official documents—even decks of playing cards—had to have the stamps.
All 13 colonies protested vehemently, as popular leaders like Henry in Virginia and Otis in Massachusetts rallied the people in opposition. A secret group, the "Sons of Liberty," formed in many towns, threatening violence if anyone sold the stamps.
In Bostonthe Sons of Liberty burned the records of the vice-admiralty court and looted the elegant home of the chief justice, Thomas Hutchinson. Several legislatures called for united action, and nine colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress in New York City in October Moderates led by John Dickinson drew up a "Declaration of Rights and Grievances" stating that taxes passed without representation violated ancient rights.
In Londonthe Rockingham government came to power and Parliament debated whether to repeal the stamp tax or send an army to enforce it. Benjamin Franklin eloquently made the American case, explaining the colonies had spent heavily in manpower, money and blood in defense of the empire in a series of wars against the French and Indians, and that paying further taxes for those wars was unjust and might bring about a rebellion.
Parliament agreed and repealed the tax, but in a "Declaratory Act" of March insisted that parliament retained full power to make laws for the colonies "in all cases whatsoever.
Committees of correspondence were formed in the colonies to coordinate resistance to paying the taxes. In previous years, the colonies had shown little inclination towards collective action. The motivating force was the American embrace of a political ideology called "republicanism," which was dominant in the colonies by It was influenced greatly by the "country party" in Britain, whose critique of British government emphasized that political corruption was to be feared.
The colonists associated the "court" with luxury and inherited aristocracy, which Americans increasingly condemned. Corruption was the greatest possible evil, and civic virtue required men to put civic duty ahead of their personal desires.
Men had a civic duty to fight for their country. For women, "republican motherhood" became the ideal, as exemplified by Abigail Adams and Mercy Otis Warren ; the first duty of the republican woman was to instill republican values in her children and to avoid luxury and ostentation.
Nonetheless, groups of settlers continued to move west. The proclamation was soon modified and was no longer a hindrance to settlement, but its promulgation without consulting Americans angered the colonists. By then, however, the Americans had scant regard for new laws from London—they were drilling militia and organizing for war.
Soon afterwards, Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts reported that he and the royal judges would be paid directly by London, thus bypassing the colonial legislature.
In lateSamuel Adams set about creating new Committees of Correspondence that would link together patriots in all thirteen colonies and eventually provide the framework for a rebel government. The second act was the Administration of Justice Act, which ordered that all British soldiers to be tried were to be arraigned in Britain, not the colonies.
The third act was the Boston Port Act, which closed the port of Boston until the British had been compensated for the tea lost in the Boston Tea Party the British never received such a payment.The BCM(A) declares its goal to be a free, socialist, democratic Azania, and seeks to overthrow the system of apartheid through a revolution led by the Black workers and masses.
The Young Republic. Following independence, the American states began the process of drafting new state constitutions, many of which reflected increased democratic elements (women and slaves excepted)..
The nation’s governing document was the Articles of Confederation whose weaknesses led to a “critical period" in the initiativeblog.comvative elements in the country were especially disturbed by.
Women’s Service with the Revolutionary Army. The American Revolution has proven to be a fertile ground for study. One can find works as theoretical as the ideological nature of the war, and as practical as detailed troop movements in particular battles.
Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress. Resources/Collections of History Lesson Plans NEH Lesson Plans Web-based lesson plans for U.S. history and American government teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities EDSITEment.
See also History and Social Studies and Introduction to Advanced Placement U.S. History Lessons. initiativeblog.com By Awet Amedechiel.
The majority of colonial women made small, but vital contributions to the Revolutionary War effort. Betsy Ross' mythical creation of the first flag of the United States is the most famous female achievement of the Revolutionary era, but it is only one example of the many stories of women making a difference during and after the war.