Summary The year marks the th anniversary of the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament. The campaign for abolition was spearheaded by devout Christians, and it stands to this day as perhaps the finest political achievement of what would now be called faith-based activism. But who were the abolitionists, and how did their Christianity motivate them to campaign against the slave trade? This paper examines the Christian mind of the abolitionists, and ponders the lessons for today.
Jersey City, New Jersey: But various unofficial estimates have been made. The official census of gives the total population of the United States as 38, And the New York "Irish World" 25 July,speaking of the census, claims that two-thirds of the people are Celts by birth or descent and only about one-ninth are Anglo-Saxon, and in a tabulated statement of the components of the population, that journal estimates the "joint product in of Irish Colonial element and subsequent Irish immigration including that from Canada at 14," cited from O'Kaine Murray's "History of the Catholic Church in the United States", p.
In Philip H. Baganel, an English writer, in his work "The American Irish", p. There can be no doubt that the amount of Celtic blood in the American people is very much greater than they themselves would like to allow.
We have referred to the Irish immigration for as the largest in history.
The steady and extraordinary increase from 44, in toin figures of Thom's Almanac forcited in O'Rourke, "History, etc. As is well known the potato blight appeared in Ireland inas it had appeared before, namely in, and in several later years.
By it extended over the whole country, so that nowhere in the land were there any potatoes fit either for food for human belongs or for seed. But side by side with the blackened potato fields there were abundant crops of grain which were in no way affected by the potato blight.
These, however, were disposed of frequently by distraint, as the sole means of providing the rent for the landlord, while the unfortunate tenants by whose labour they had been produced were left without food. Famine which brought fever and other miseries in its train set in, so that tens of thousands of people sank into their graves, many of them dying within the shelter of the poorhouses.
There were evictions without limit, many of them under heart-rending circumstances. Nulty, Bishop of Meathtells of human beings evicted in one day in from one estate Parnell Movement, p. In there were in the Irish workhousespersonsof whom 9, were fever patients O'Rourke, "History of the Great Irish Famine", p.
Nearly three-quarters of a million were employed on public works which had been devised as a means of relieving the distress, and 3, persons were receiving daily rations of food from the Government ibid, Of the horrors of that time it is almost impossible to speak with moderation.
There would have been no need for the people to emigrate if their food did not emigrate. But the exhausting result of the Union had brought matters to a point that compelled Ireland to sell her food to supply the enormous money drain.
The food is first taken away and then its price is taken away also. From these causes the population of Ireland was diminished during the famine period by two and a half million souls: It was to America that by far the greatest number of emigrants went.
The transportation of emigrants in those early days was attended with such cruel conditions that reviewing them now after a lapse of fifty years, it seems almost incredible that they should have been tolerated by any civilized nation. The ships employed in this service were only too often broken-down freight ships, in which merchants were unwilling to entrust valuable merchandise.
The humane provisions of modern times with respect to light, ventilation, and cleanliness were wholly unknown. More often than not the ships were undermanned, so that in case of a storm the passengers were required to lend a hand in doing the work of sailors.
The provisions supplied were always uncooked, scanty in amount, and frequently unfit for use. With favourable weather the voyage lasted from six to eight weeks. Against head-winds and storms the old hulks were frequently from twelve to fourteen weeks on the way.
With the emigrants already predisposed by famine and hardship, it is not to be wondered at that fever often broke out on board ship and that many died and their remains were tossed overboard during the voyage.
This was especially true in the British vessels, in which the death-rate exceeded that of the vessels of all other nationalities see Kapp, "Immigration", p.
As a result these emigrant ships when reaching the United States were in many instances little else than floating hospitals. When they arrived in port the shipmaster made haste to discharge his human cargo, and the sick and dying, as well as those who had survived unharmed, were put ashore on the wharves and the public landing-places and were left to their fate.
Some of the sick, when they reached New York, were fortunate enough to gain admission to the Marine Hospital; others were carried to the sheds and structures which had been provided by the brokers and agents of the shipowners, under their agreement with the municipal authorities to provide for such sick emigrants as they might land.
But the treatment of the emigrants in these institutions was little less brutal than they had experienced on shipboard. The food there was often unfit for any human being, still less for the sick. Sanitary conditions were ignored, and medical attendance was rarely adequate to the existing needs.
Not only the sick and dying, but often the corpses of the dead, were huddled together. One instance is specified where the bodies of two who had died four to five days before were left unburied upon the cots whereon they had died, in the same room with their sick companions see Maguire, "The Irish in America", p.
So fatal were these conditions that it has been estimated by medical statisticians that not less than 20, emigrants perished by ship fever and in the various emigrant hospitals in American ports in the year Kapp, "Immigration", p.
Those of the emigrants who survived the hardships of the voyage and retained strength enough to go about encountered troubles of a different kind. Boarding-house runners, ticker-sellers, and money-changers swarmed about the landing-places. Boarding-house charges were fraudulently multiplied, money-brokers practiced their calling at extortionate rates, while the selling of fraudulent railroad-tickets was one of the commonest practices by which the poor immigrant was plundered.-Native Americans were regarded as inferior people subject to Christian domination.
-Native Americans ways of life were respected. -Since nothing of value could be learned or obtained from the Native Americans, Europeans thought it was permissible to exterminate them. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America (America: a cultural history) [David Hackett Fischer] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
This fascinating book is the first volume in a projected cultural history of the United States, from the earliest English settlements to our own time.
It is a history of American folkways as they have changed through time. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
“” (Soderlund 88) The Puritans on the other hand, viewed the polytheistic and unorganized nature of religion in addition to the “inadequate” clothing of the Native Americans as “sinful.
” With their literal translation of the Bible, the Puritans viewed the Native Americans’ regard for everything living in addition to the one “Great Spirit” as idolatry. Who were the first Irish to land on the American continent and the time of their arrival are perhaps matters of conjecture rather than of historical proof; but that the Irish were there almost at the beginning of the colonial era is a fact support by historical records.
The various nations of Europe. Immigration. Roger Daniels. Immigration and immigration policy have been an integral part of the American polity since the early years of the American Republic.