Topics include major events, persons, and issues spanning the period from the African heritage to contemporary times. Students survey the evolution of African American expressive culture in music, literature, film, art, and dance. The course includes lectures, discussions, and video presentations.
Primates are characterized by being anatomically unspecialized, with limbs capable of performing a variety of functions, refined five-digit hands adapted for grasping including opposable thumbscomparatively flattened snouts, and prolonged pre and postnatal development, among other features.
All primates have five fingers pentadactyl that are long and inward closing, short fingernails rather than clawsand a generalized dental pattern. While opposing thumbs are a characteristic primate feature, this feature is not limited to this order; opossumsfor example, also have opposing thumbs.
Primates are omnivorous generalized feeders that consume both animal protein and vegetation. Primates are informally arranged into three groups: Humans belong to the third group of primates, and specifically those primates known as apes. Apes are those primates placed in the superfamily Hominoidea of the same clade Catarrhini; the Old World monkeys are placed in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade, or parvorder, Catarrhini.
Apes consist of the various species of gibbons or "lesser apes"as well as gorillaschimpanzeesbonobos, orangutansand humans collectively referred to as the "great apes". From the point of view of superficial appearance, all living members of apes are tailless, while most Old World monkeys have tails.
However, there are also primates in other families that lack tails. More specifically, the apes can be distinguished from the Old World monkeys by the number of cusps on their molars apes have five—the "Y-5" molar pattern, Old World monkeys have only four in a "bilophodont" pattern.
Apes have more mobile shoulder joints and arms, ribcages that are flatter front-to-back, and a shorter, less mobile spine compared to Old World monkeys. A common taxonomic scheme divides the apes, or hominoids, into two families: The family Hylobatidae consists of 4 genera and 12 species of gibbonscollectively known as the "lesser apes" The family Hominidae consisting of gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, and humans, collectively known as the "great apes" Members of the family Hominidae are called hominids by many systematists.
Since recent classification schemes for the apes place extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans in Hominidae, technically hominid refers to members of these groups.
However, historically and even in some current classification schemes, Hominidae is restricted to humans and their close, extinct relatives—those more similar to humans than to the other great apes, which were placed in another family.
Thus, there is a tradition, particularly in anthropologyof using the term hominid to refer only to humans and such forebears as AustralopithecusHomo habilisand Homo erectus.
In this sense, humans are considered the only surviving hominids. Based on purely biological aspects morphology, DNA, proteins, and so onit is clear the humans are primates.
Indeed, humans and chimpanzees share more than 98 percent identity by various molecular comparisons protein sequences, allele differences, DNA nucleotide sequences Wood ; King and Wilson Biologists believe that the two species of chimpanzeesPan troglodytes and Pan paniscus, are the closest living evolutionary relatives to humans.
The anatomical and biochemical similarity between chimpanzees and humans is so striking that some scientists even have proposed that the two chimpanzee species be placed with sapiens in the genus Homo, rather than in Pan. One argument for this suggested reclassification is that other species have been reclassified to belong to the same genus on the basis of less genetic similarity than that between humans and chimpanzees.
For example, Ebersberger et al. Likewise, a comparison of a rough draft of the chimpanzee genome—involvingcontiguous fragments with a medium length of 15, nucleotides, covering about 94 percent of the chimpanzee genome—with the human genome, for those sequences that could be aligned, averaged 1.
Comparison of chimpanzee exons and human sequences yielded only 0. For a more detailed discussion of this, see Chimpanzees and humans. Uniqueness of human beings Because humans are classified as primates and because apes are considered to be our biological ancestors, there is a modern tendency to consider humans as "just another primate" or "nothing but an animal.
However, despite the remarkable physical similarity, the gulf between humans and other great apes and other animals in general is qualitatively huge, in terms of culturalpsychological including emotional and mental characteristicsand spiritual aspects.
Humans have a complex language, use symbols in communication, write and read books, have set up diverse systems of governance, have remarkable self-awareness, conduct scientific experiments, practice religious traditions, have developed complex technologiesand so forth.
As noted by eminent evolutionist Ernst Mayr"Man is indeed unique, as different from all other animals, as has been traditionally claimed by theologians and philosophers" Mayr Language, involving syntax and grammar, is one notably unique characteristics of humans.
Other animals species that sometimes are said to have a "language"—such as the "language of bees "—merely have systems of giving and receiving signals; they lack a system of communication with syntax and grammar, which is required to properly be a language Mayrp.
Thus, chimpanzeesdespite decades of attempts to teach them language, cannot talk about the future or the past; they seem to lack the ability to adopt syntax Mayr Other animals have intelligence and think, including highly developed intelligence in various mammals and birds corvids, parrotsand so on Mayr But human intelligence is greater by orders of magnitude.
Humans have self-awareness, can reason abstractly, are capable of introspection, and appreciate beauty and aesthetics.
They desire to understand the world, including both past, present, and future, and even study other animals and themselves.
They have developed complex systems of governance and law, established sciences, and express feelings through art, music, and literature. They have developed complex technologies.
Human beings, unlike any other animals, transfer a great deal of cultural information, utilizing language in the process. Many animals, such as most invertebratesdo not even have any relationship with their parents, which die before their are hatched, and thus the parents do not transmit information to their offspring.
Humans, on the other hand, form monogamous pair bonds and have extensive parental care, raising their young in families where both parents educate the youngsters. However, even in species with highly developed parental care, such as in certain mammals and birdsthe amount of information that is handed down from generation to generation nongenetic information transfer is quite limited MayrThe Economist offers authoritative insight and opinion on international news, politics, business, finance, science, technology and the connections between them.
Chris Anderson is the Curator of TED, a nonprofit devoted to sharing valuable ideas, primarily through the medium of 'TED Talks' -- short talks that are offered free online to a global audience. Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; Where We Can Go. By Wade Frazier.
Version , published May Version published September Significant Energy E vents in Earth's and Life's History as of Energy Event. Timeframe.
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Exposure device for the students. An exposure device with a special antenna placed on students zippers was used for generating the EMF (1 W peak output power and mW/cm 2 power density), and the exposure emission was maintained at GHz and 5.o GHz with a pulse repetition frequency of Hz for days a year for hours at school and at home on the abdomen.
DAVID MASCI: Good morning.
My name is David Masci and I am a senior fellow at the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. On behalf of the Pew Forum, the Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy and the Constitution Project, it’s my great pleasure to welcome you today to a discussion on end-of-life issues.